As we are moving towards 21st Conference Of Parties at Paris , expectations of reaching to an agreement on Climate change are getting higher. Nearly 150 countries have declared their Intended and Nationally determined Contributions for fighting Climate Change. India also declared its INDC’s keeping in mind its right to development.Upto a Large extent, Around the world and on social media, the goals targeted by India received positive response. Global response , being positive managed to kept more then 4*C increase in temperature(a worst case scenario) out of the table. Now at the least the focus is to maintain a maximum 2*C increment in the temperature levels, since the post industrial era. This though seems impossible as analyst found more then 2.5 degree increment in temperature inevitable by the end of this century.Having said this, we must also look at the possible impact of this climate change on the various regions. As the IPCC 5th assessment report establishes that the climate change is going to have a serious implications for the tropical countries of which most are either least developed and developing. This also means that these countries are paying for the sins committed by the developed world. A report in The guardian finds pacific islands already getting submerged. India too will face the submergence threat at the worlds one of the biggest Mangroove forest lands, Sunderban’s. Maldives Srilanka , all of them are going to get submerged sooner or later..and some even before the end of this century.IPCC Fifth Assessment report also say’s that the impact of climate change might originate serious food crisis in the tropical countries. The climate change is already affecting the production levels, for example there is a sharp fall in the production of Kharif crops in India and also of the pulses.Their s a visible increment in the occurrence of sudden climatic events and prolonged draughts, late rains etc. Ice sheets are melting rapidly and Arctic will be ice free before the end of this century.FUrther melting of Antarctic ice sheets presents a grave danger for entire humanity.We are like a toad sitting inside a pan feeling safe but the water beneath our feet is getting hotter rapidly. It is therefore of no surprise that Marshall island took legal steps against developed world, for failing to come to an agreement and provide with clear and visible options, as they are the first to pay for the sins of developed world. In this context, Issue of equity in Global Climate Change responsibility sharing is of paramount Importance.
The per capita emission of GHG by USA is nearly 20 tonnes, China, has achieved a level of 8.13 tonnes per capita. India emits 2.44 tonnes per capita. USA and China the biggest two polluters of the world came to an understanding earlier , acc to which by 2030 , China will reach its maximum emission limits and there on it will move down the trajectory , where as at the same time, USA aimed at INDC reduction target of 26% to 28% by 2025. China which claimed the first position in terms of Top Ten GHG( Green House Gas) emitters list with 25.26% of total global emission declared an INDC reduction target of 60% to 65% by 2030.USA earlier succeeded in breaking the firewall of Annex-1 and Annex-2 countries agreed upon during the KYOTO agreement. As Director of CSE , and a leading policy expert on climate change argues, that UPA govt in its ten year period helped USA dismantling the Equity firewall.Before moving further into this debate we must understand , what this Equity argument is all about. As agreed during the KYoto protocol, The countries of the world came to the agreement that since developed countries have polluted the post industrial world the most, their liability is important for global justice. It was also agreed that the developing world should provide the needed technology and will finance the emission reduction efforts of the least developing as well as of the developing world while reducing its emissions so that an easy and rapid transition could take place. USA by strong diplomatic efforts succeeded to break this equity understanding. It never signed the Kyoto protocol and bullied countries for the INDC.The fifth IPCC assessment report establishes the carbon budget of the planet at 3000 G tonnes.As Mr chandrachur another climate change expert argues that, USA with its 5% population has already used nearly 20 percent of the worlds Carbon budget whereas India with 18% population of the world has hardly used less then 5% of the global carbon budget.This is where equity issue comes in. Since, As Sunita Narain, Director CSE Argues, USA, along with CHina and EU have already utilized nearly or more then 50% of the global carbon budget, what will be left for the rest of the world to utilize for the development purpose?
Another issue as Chief economic advisor of India argued in the report submitted to govt is of finance and technology transfer. Taking a realist or pragmatic view he argued that since developed world is not going to finance rest of the world’s climate change efforts and will never transfer technology at throw away prices to least developing or developing countries, therefor Indian govt should try to develop and find its own methods to deal with the upcoming climate crisis.The Global Climate change fund established at the beginning of this decade envisaged a 1 trillion dollar funding before the end of this decade. Less then ten billions have come to the fund so far. That too out of philanthropic effort of Norway govt. This shows callousness of developed world and passivity in its effort.Also in the name of technology transfer only lip service has been done so far and in near future it looks improbable that any technology transfer effort will originate from the developed world.Therefore , it becomes imperative for the least developed and developing world to enforce equity issue and manage to introduce and sustain the Common But Differentiated Responsibility mechanism so as to ensure that developed world should not walk free , all absolved of its past colonial crimes and post industrial emissions. It is necessary for the negotiating countries of the world to maintain global justice and inhibit any attempt of the developed world to shift the weight of Climate change mitigation and adaptation effort on the least developed and developing world , who have not attained their required level of development.The Right to development is imperative for the least developing countries and the developing countries like India already facing the plight of sudden and unexpected climatic events like prolonged heat waves , Draught (Marathwada , Gujarat, Harayana, west UP, AP) food crisis..etc.Their must be a parity and equity in sharing right to development and fighting climate change. The fight for equity must go hand in hand with the fight for climate change, so that every one can have equitable rgt of development. The developed world must understand what Gandhi once said, that ” Earth provides enough to satisfy every man’s need but not every man’s greed.” Mahatma is always relevant.